Often painful, bunions are deformities that occur in the foot. They develop as a result of consistent pressure on the foot.

Wearing  拇趾外翻 shoes that fit properly can help prevent bunions from developing. Shoes that have a wide toe box are best. Avoid shoes with pointed toes or high heels.

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Usually, bunions occur in the base of the big toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP joint). This joint connects the first long bone of your foot, known as the metatarsal, with the first bone in your toe, called the phalanx.

A bunion develops when the bones in your foot shift out of alignment. This creates a bump where the big toe points toward the second toe.

People with a bunion may also have red, thickened skin along the inside edge of their big toe. Pain in the joint is also common.

The exact cause of a bunion is not known, but it is often linked to inherited faulty foot structure. Flat feet, weak connective tissues, and a short Achilles tendon are all believed to make you more likely to have a bunion.


Symptoms of bunions vary from person to person, but in most cases the condition is noticed when it causes pain and interferes with walking. A doctor can make the diagnosis with a physical examination.

Your doctor might also order X-rays and other tests to get a clearer view of your bunion. They may also order blood tests to learn if you have another condition that has contributed to your bunion.

If the bunion is not causing you any pain or discomfort, we might be able to treat it with changes in shoewear. Wearing shoes that give your feet space and add pads to help cushion the bump may help relieve pain.

However, if the bunion is painful or affecting your ability to walk, your doctor might recommend surgery. Your doctor will remove the bunion by cutting or scraping away the bone that is causing it. The operation is usually performed under general anesthetic, meaning you’ll be asleep during the procedure.


A doctor’s evaluation of your foot and an X-ray can help diagnose bunions. If your bunion is causing pain, the doctor will recommend treatment.

Your healthcare provider may prescribe medication to help with pain and inflammation, including ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin) and naproxen sodium. They can also suggest ice packs and cortisone injections to reduce swelling.

If your bunion has not been helped by these measures, your doctor may recommend surgery to realign your big toe and remove the bump. Surgery is most often used in older people with severe bunions.

Bunion surgery can be an outpatient procedure that involves sedation and local or general anesthesia. The surgeon can cut, realign, and possibly remove parts of the bone, ligaments, and tendons based on the severity of your bunion.


If your bunion pain isn’t controlled by icing, pads or over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), you might want to try cortisone injections. These medications, often combined with ice packs, can reduce swelling and pain quickly.

Other treatments include padding, taping, changing shoes or orthotic devices. These are designed to reduce pressure on your toes, and help control alignment issues that may be contributing to your bunion.

You may also need to avoid activities that aggravate your bunion. These could include standing or walking for long periods of time, playing contact sports, and wearing narrow, tight shoes.

Wearing appropriate shoes with a wide toe box and forgoing pointed toes and high heels can also relieve pressure and prevent bunions from developing. Padding, taping and splints can help keep your big toe in the correct position, which can lessen pain and pressure.

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