The transportation of liquefied natural gas must be carried out with the highest care since this gas is important for many processes. The LNG terminals play a crucial role in this situation.
Before we get to the LNG terminals, we will talk about liquefied natural gas and its importance in different areas.
Liquefied natural gas and its importance
LNG stands for Liquefied Natural Gas and is a natural gas that has been converted to a liquid state. This gas is cooled to about -260 F (-161°C and -163°C) to facilitate storage and transportation. After cooling, the gas is a clear, colorless, and non-toxic liquid that can be easily transported.
Liquefied natural gas is used in various fields; it can be used in households, as fuel for ships for maritime transport and cruise ships, for refueling commercial vehicles, for heating, and electricity generation, and for the manufacture of products such as fertilizers, and for paints and medicines.
The use of liquified natural gas has many advantages, including:
- being the cleanest of all fossil fuels, producing 40% less carbon dioxide (CO2) than coal and 30% less than oil
- containing less carbon than other forms of fossil fuels, as it is typically 85-95% methane
- helping make energy affordable
- being cheaper than other gasses
- being easy to transport and store
The liquified natural gas is shipped across the world’s oceans in large and efficient carriers and transported to LNG import terminals, where it is stored, regasified, and injected into local gas supply networks for delivery to local markets.
LNG terminals are important in many different contexts, including the economy. Because gas is a greener alternative to oil, LNG terminals increase the supply of gas, attract ships to ports, increase local tourism, boost the local economy, and improve air quality.
The activity at the LNG terminal can be divided into four following phases: Receiving and unloading LNG from ships, Tanking LNG, Compression, and Regasification, and Transmission. Each phase has its importance and should be handled carefully.
According to studies, the United States, Qatar and Russia are the world’s biggest exporters of LNG, then comes Australia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Indonesia, Algeria, Russia, Trinidad & Tobago, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. On the other hand, China was the world’s biggest LNG-importing country in 2021, followed by Japan.
Global LNG trade grew by 4.5% from 2020. After the pandemic situation, the LNG imports increased, although the annual growth rate of 4.5% is still far from the 2019 rate.
According to assets.kpmg, in the graph below we can see the countries and their LNG supply forecasting until 2025. In this case, the Asian continent plays an important role and the supply of natural gas is increasing from time to time. And then comes Europe.
As this industry is growing, industry leaders such as Joseph Sigelman, Joe McGladdery, and other specialists in the field are taking steps to promote the successful development of LNG import terminals.
Some of the steps Mr. Sigelaman is taking with the goal of developing LNG terminals in various countries are:
- In India, his company is operating and developing an urban gas utility covering about 8% of the country, building and operating compressed natural gas (CNG) stations, supplying LNG to industrial customers, and piping natural gas to households.
- In the Philippines, he builds, designs, and constructs LNG terminals.